Language and Literacy
Langue et littératie
Volume 24, numéro 2, 2022
Sommaire (11 articles)
Défis et facilitateurs lors de l’implantation de pratiques d’intervention naturalistes pour soutenir le développement de la littératie en milieu de garde éducatif à l’enfance
Colombe Lemire, Carmen Dionne et Julie Myre-Bisaillon
L’activity-based intervention (ABI) utilise le jeu et les routines pour soutenir le développement d’habiletés chez les jeunes enfants. Cet article s’intéresse à l’implantation de l’ABI en soutien à la littératie émergente par quatre éducatrices en service de garde éducatif à l’enfance (SGEE). L’analyse qualitative de journaux de bord met en lumière l’importance de prendre en compte les défis des éducatrices lors de la mise en oeuvre de nouvelles pratiques d’intervention à la suite d’une formation et d’un accompagnement professionnel en milieu de travail. Cet article met également en évidence des facteurs à considérer pour favoriser l’implantation de l’ABI en SGEE.
Naturalistic interventions, such as activity-based interventions (ABI), use play and daily activities to support development of skills in young children. This article documents the challenges and facilitators encountered by four daycare educators trained and coached to implement ABI to support development of literacy skills. The main challenges identified were lack of time, management of socioemotional issues, and changes to groups of children. Facilitators include physical accommodations and children’s interests. This article highlights the importance of offering a wide range of literacy materials accessible to children.
Critical Literacy in Canada: A Systematic Review of Curricula and Literature
Jean Kaya, Roswita Dressler et Kim Lenters
Critical literacy is a pedagogy that serves to mediate social justice issues and educate for transformative social action. We present a systematic review of how critical literacy has been incorporated in Canada’s provincial/territorial curriculum documents since the late 1990s and integrated in K-12 classrooms in the last decade. Our analysis shows that critical literacy has been addressed with varying degrees of explicitness in curricula, and there is an imbalance of studies on critical literacies among provinces and territories. We discuss implications and encourage stakeholders in education to explicitly embed critical literacy into curricula and promote critical literacy practices in the classroom.
Magic and Monsters: Collaborating with Googlei in Literacy Practices
Mary Ott, Jenny Kassen et Kathryn Hibbert
Collaboration is one of the defining features of work and learning in the 21st century. Yet despite the proliferation of Google apps and devices for collaboration across North American school systems, the scope of research on student collaboration using Google technologies in elementary school settings is limited. This paper presents findings from two cases in grade five classrooms where teachers were experimenting with using Google Docs and Chromebooks in their literacy programs. Drawing on a conceptual framework of sociomaterial, complexity, and affect theories, the study offers insights for teachers to understand the complexities of collaboration with these technologies, and pedagogical implications for working with the magic and monsters of unintended effects in collaborative literacy practices.
Composing meaning through multiliteracies and multimodality with adolescent and adult learners
Susan M. Holloway et Rasha Qaisi
The research from this ongoing nationally funded study explores multiliteracies and multimodality in secondary schools and adult education settings including a museum, dance studio, and French language learning centre. There are 30 participants to date in the study. Using constructivist grounded theory methodology, the study draws upon data from face-to-face interviews, observations, document analysis, and original film footage of learning spaces. Social semiotics theory is used in this paper to articulate how a range of modes (visual, linguistic, and gestural) affect teaching and learning. The findings suggest that multiliteracies and multimodality foster creativity and criticality, engage marginalized learners, and provide greater versatility in meaning-making practices.
La recherche de cette étude en cours financée à l'échelle nationale explore les multilittératies et la multimodalité dans les écoles secondaires et les établissements d'éducation des adultes, y compris un musée, un studio de danse et un centre d'apprentissage du français. Il y a 30 participants à ce jour dans l'étude. À l'aide d'une méthodologie fondée sur la théorie constructiviste, l'étude s'appuie sur des données provenant d'entretiens en face à face, d'observations, d'analyses de documents et de séquences filmées originales d'espaces d'apprentissage. La théorie de la sémiotique sociale est utilisée dans cet article pour expliquer comment une gamme de modes (visuels, linguistiques et gestuels) affectent l'enseignement et l'apprentissage. Les résultats suggèrent que les multilittératies et la multimodalité favorisent la créativité et la criticité,engagent les apprenants marginalisés et offrent une plus grande polyvalence dans les pratiques de création de sens.
Culturally Relevant Model for Digital Language and Literacy Instruction
Lauren Eutsler et Araceli Pérez
Overwhelming instructional technology options leave teachers searching for efficient approaches to foster differentiated instruction. This study examined an iterative, design-based research approach of one teacher’s 10-week digital literacy and language-guided small-group instructional intervention with second-grade unidentified language learners. Students explored 15 language and literacy apps, engaged in personalized reading experiences, and created authentic artifacts reflective of their culture. Findings led to the Culturally Relevant Model for Digital Language and Literacy Instruction, a roadmap for teachers and teacher educators to plan tailored instruction to better meet the needs of identified and unidentified students’ language and literacy skills.
Print Literacy Humiliation: Translanguaging and emotions with newcomer children
Emotions not only take us deeper in but also reveal larger political and historical structures that dominate how the Grades 4 to 6 newcomers with emerging print literacy in this study shape their literacy practices. Following a humanizing approach, I conducted three qualitative, critical case studies in Ontario urban schools. Data collection tools included in this article include plurilingual texts, focus group interviews and field notes. Through a thematic deductive analysis, themes emerged such as desire and written English, and print literacy humiliation. Moving away from historically oppressive, English-only structures in the classrooms, created more excitement and pride around writing and language.
Investigating Writing Instruction Practices for Students With Deafness and Hearing Loss
Michael Dunn, Amira Albagshi et Faisal Aldawsari
This case study investigated the writing instruction practices of teachers (grades 6 and 7) of students with deafness and hearing loss. The researchers focused on what classroom practices and strategies teachers employed with students, what teachers’ perspectives were about best-practices for writing instruction, students’ perspectives about writing, and scores from their end-of-unit writing samples. The authors completed qualitative interviews and classroom observations with teachers (N=2) and students (N=6; three per class observed) about writing instruction for students with deafness and hearing loss. The data resulted in four themes: the need for teacher modeling, guided practice, and developing students’ independence; students’ challenges with writing (e.g., from ASL to English prose); the need for more resources (e.g., professional development about writing); and how assessment helps define students’ strengths and weaknesses.
ESL Writing Instruction in K-12 Settings: Pedagogical Approaches and Classroom Techniques
Subrata Bhowmik et Marcia Kim
Writing is an important literacy skill that K-12 students must develop for academic success. For young ESL students, developing writing skills entails both learning English and developing writing as a literacy skill. The need for this dual skill development underlines the challenges of teaching K-12 ESL writing, as teachers must strike a balance between teaching writing as a tool for students’ English language development and literacy skill. This paper reports on findings related to pedagogical approaches and classroom techniques that are prevalent in K-12 ESL writing instruction. Our research is based on a systematic review of 49 studies published between 2010 and 2019. Using content analysis, three pedagogical approaches were identified: (a) approaches centered on teacher perspectives, (b) approaches centered on student perspectives, and (c) approaches centered on emerging research and theories of ESL writing instruction. As well, the analysis yielded four classroom techniques: (a) adopting SFL-oriented and genre-based activities, (b) utilizing ESL-bilingual student writers’ language learning traits, (c) incorporating digital technology, and (d) adapting instructional practices in response to student needs. Critically reflecting on these pedagogical approaches and classroom techniques, the paper discusses the advantages and challenges of implementing them in the classroom. The paper provides a taxonomy of instructional practices that K-12 ESL writing teachers may find useful.
Literacy Education in the Post-Truth Era: The Pedagogical Potential of Multiliteracies
Lana Parker et Kristy Smith
Current literacy curriculum often reflects an emphasis on traditions of print literacy. This focus is a concern in the post-truth era, as youth engage in diverse meaning-making practices that shape their habits as consumers and producers of information. This in-depth case study investigated the in-class and at-home online behaviors of high school students. We find that even when explicit learning about ‘research’ occurred in class, students are lacking sense-making strategies in their personal online engagements. We also find that curriculum relies on tradition with very little recognition of (multi)literacies as socially constructed and that teachers desire more professional development and guidance about how to engage these literacies more holistically.
Exploring the Relationship Between Teacher and Multilingual Student Discourse During Small Group Text-Based Discussions
Christina M. Budde, Margaret Sullivan Marcus, Melinda Martin-Beltran et Rebecca D. Silverman
Few studies investigate how teacher discourse moves relate to subsequent student discourse moves in real-time small-group reading instruction with multilingual learners (MLLs). Grounded in sociocultural theory and classroom discourse research, this study examines how fourth-grade MLLs engage in reasoning discourse during text-based discussions. We argue that by examining reasoning discourse holistically - beyond speaker turns - we can capture teacher-talk moves that facilitate or constrain student reasoning. This examination illuminates discourse practices such as “procedural instruction” and “reference to text,” with important consequences for MLLs. Our study has implications for scholarship analyzing classroom talk and literacy educators facilitating discussions where MLLs engage in sophisticated and complex reasoning discourse.
When Learners Read in Two Languages: Understanding Chinese-English Bilingual Readers Through Miscue Analysis
Heather Blair, Jacqueline Filipek, Hongliang Fu, Xiaobing Lin et Miao Sun
The number of Chinese-speaking students in Canadian schools is increasing dramatically. This article discusses a study in which we explored reading processes in Chinese and English through examining children’s reading in both languages. Based in a socio-psycholinguistic framework (K. Goodman, Wang, Iventosch, & Y. Goodman,2012; Kabuto, 2017) and through using miscue analysis, we examined how children apply their knowledge of language to Mandarin and English reading. This qualitative research included interviews with four Chinese-English bilingual children between grades 3 and 5 in an urban center as well as the analysis of their reading performance in both languages. From a comparative perspective, we discuss some of the similarities and differences between these two different orthographic language systems by offering syntactic comparisons of the two languages through psycholinguistic language cueing systems. We believe that knowing about how Chinese and English readers construct meaning in both languages will help English as an Additional Language (EAL) teachers, in fact all classroom teachers, to teach reading to bilingual and biliterate children.